Here are some of the motors I have worked on in my quest to discover what they call Overunity, and I have become thoroughly convinced of several ways in which it can be done. However, even if we cant achieve some revolutionary breakthrough that has been hidden for years, we can still charge some damn batteries and save some money. You may not realize it but the batteries you throw away on a regular basis are still good for something. They dont have to be "rechargeable" to be recharged.. You can even recharge non-rechargeable batteries with a conventional charger, as long as you make sure they dont get too hot and explode (since they dont have those handy gas vents). The method we are using to charge these batteries is "Pulse Technology", using high voltage "transient" energy, meaning it is a fleeting pulse frequency we are giving and receiving rather than a constant flow of current over time. rather than flicking the switch on we are flicking it on and off over and over. Because we are essentially charging the batteries MORE with the voltage than the current, they run almost no risk of overheating or exploding..
Click HERE for some additional information on batteries and what we're doing to them.
These are some of my projects have I found to be enlightening to me in the learning process. All the information I needed was necessary on the internet.. from websites, publications, photos, and long-distance partners in science (hehe). I want people to know all of my projects were made from junked items and random things I was able to find laying around the house or even at work (extra-hehe). The only things I ever had to buy were some occasional wire or neon bulbs, gator clips, electrical tape, super glue, maybe some transistors or something. Most of the electrical components can be easily salvaged from old electronics.. just open them up and start looking at all the little parts in a new light.
How it works: (or click HERE for my explanation of how the Bedini works)
When dealing with an electric motor/generator we generally use the same basic principles.. We have a rotor, which is just a wheel of sorts that is able to spin freely. Magnets, which are used as a triggering force, and an electromagnet which is the motor driver. Many generators(not motors) use "field coils" and generator coils, where the field coil would take the place of a permanent magnet, it just needs to be energized with some of the input energy. A lot of conventional electric motors today use brush contacts for switching, and have their driving coils fixed to the rotor. If we can allow the magnets to control the ON and OFF states of the electromagnet, then we can turn it into a brush-less motor with lower friction . When a coil of wire is energized, and de-energized, it releases a spike of energy at a voltage dependent upon the number of turns in the wire. It's like how transformers work. This is due to the induction process, where a coil of wire is energized and creates a magnetic field. This magnetic field will only exist as long as the input current exists, and when the input current is removed, the field will collapse back into the coil windings as electricity again. This is why a transformer works better with a metal core, preferably a closed one, so it can absorb more of this magnetic field and thus receive a greater collapse. Normally when this collapse occurs and the high voltage "spike" is released, it is absorbed in an unfavorable way, grounded, or blocked and dissipated. Rather than waste it we can re-use it.
By capturing these high voltage spikes created in the switching process, we can send them to another battery and charge it.
There are an almost unlimited number of ways a circuit can be engineered to allow for the switching process. The most commonly used methods are a simple contact switch (like a reed relay) or an inductor (trigger) winding. The process is simple. Imagine what would happen if you energized an electromagnet and held it near a permanent magnet. Depending on the orientation it will either attract or repel. This is the force we are using to propel our motor. All we have to do is place a switching mechanism in the right spot so that the switch occurs right at the moment a magnet on the rotor is facing the electromagnet in a way that causes it to rotate. Imagine the transistor in these circuits as the main switching component, it just needs to be told when and how hard to switch (which is controlled via the construction of the wires, magnet strength and orientation, and resistance setting).
The simplest Bedini circuit, for example, uses a "bifilar" coil (Tesla's work) which consists of two wires wrapped together around the same magnetic core. Because the "trigger" and "run" wires oscillate together, a certain resistance must be found within the circuit to find a desirable switching level. This oscillation can cause the motor to operate in solid state(fancy way of saying no moving parts) without the need for spinning the rotor since the magnets are no longer necessary to switch the circuit on and off.
Anyone trying to get familiar with the concept should build a small motor first using something simple as the switching mechanism like a reed relay for example. With a small version, that needs a small input, a transistor or resistors are not even necessary as the entire circuit will be able to handle the current.
This is where it starts, the basics. If you know how to make an electromagnet, then you know how to make a coil that will operate an electromagnetic motor. All you need is an electromagnet, a rotor with magnets on it, and a way to switch it on and off to make it rotate. Heres a video using a reed relay and transistor. The transistor is not necessary but should be used to reduce sparking on the reed switch which can cause it to melt and stick together, or lose its conductivity over time. The big coil on the right in the vid is the run coil. The tiny coil on the left is a generator coil that is lighting the white LED bulb from energy generated with the magnets. This is like a super small scale of how generators work.
This was my first motor and im tapping its high voltage to charge a battery, which I will get into next in a different setup. I'm using the same fan transformer core that I expand on later. This video shows a dead 9v being charged by another 9v. I have a home-made reed switch that can handle the sparks coming from the coils during the field collapse.
Heres the reed switch doing its thing.
(image source unknown)
Here's an example of the simplest i believe it can get. A reed switch that is activated by a facing magnet. Once activated it closes the connection to the battery and sends energy into the electromagnet causing the magnet to repel and the wheel to rotate and continue the cycle.
Now were taking it to the next step. When the electromagnet coil is energized, it magnetically saturates whatever is hugging it's frame. When the coil is de-energized, this magnetic energy travels back into the coil once again to form a "spike" of energy transferred from the collapsing magnetic field. This is like how transformers work. So we can take this "spike" of energy and capture it like in the first motor rather than letting it go to waste. To do this more efficiently, we use a bridge rectifier to capture the spikes into a charge battery, and a transistor to do the switching (which is turned on by the reed switch).
This time we are taking it further. Instead of a conventional electromagnet coil as the motor driver, we are using a closed-cored transformer from a household fan. This will have less "loss" and better output. Because the rotor has such super low friction, it can still operate fast enough from such a small push. We are providing a small magnetic field push to the wheel, while also creating a very high voltage potential from the tap on the windings. This potential will energize a capacitance much faster, and do things like light fluorescent bulbs quite easily. It serves as sort of like a mechanical high voltage inverter.
Lighting a larger tube with one wire.
| Now we are using a different kind of circuit and switching mechanism, the infamous Bedini circuit. Now the transistor is still doing the switching, but using the input generated from the "trigger" wire, which is basically a generator winding used to control the pulsing of the motor. The electromagnet coil now consists of two wires, wound together on the same core, one being the motor run wire, and the other being the trigger signal wire. This introduces an interesting oscillation effect that occurs between the windings that drastically effects efficiency. In a Bedini motor, the input draw decreases with load, the opposite of how conventional motors operate. |
As a magnet swings and passes by the coil, a bit of energy is inducted into the "trigger" wire which causes the transistor to switch energy into the run wire, continuing the rotation on its own. Note the small coil!
| Click HERE for my explanation of how the circuit operates.|
(image from peswiki.com)
The original Simplified School Girl circuit released to the public by John Bedini uses a bicycle wheel as a rotor and ceramic magnets.
Bedini has claimed these energizers can charge multiple batteries from just one, and that the energizing process can restore "dead" batteries and improve their functionality over time compared to a new store-bought battery. Which is true! (high voltage spikes can eat through troublesome sulfate on the battery plates, as well as increase their capacitance the more they are "voltage overcharged" this way.
Click HERE to visit the TEEP forum thread for theDaftmans's circuit setouts, one of which is a very comprehensive printable bedini circuit layout.
This one, like the others, was made almost entirely from salvaged junk. It's "trifilar" because it has 3 wires wound together for the coil. I was short of wire so i only have the 3, 1 being the trigger and the other two runs, and both run wires are triggered by their own transistor. The trigger wire is tied in parallel with each transistor. I have a small analog meter that came from a stereo. its basically a tiny coil that inducts movement into the needle. iv'e attached that in series with the input so i can always get an idea of the current draw if i want to. the circuits and wires in this motor are inside the frame.
The idea with these designs is one of the best i believe, and that is to pack a single coil with as many wires as possible, all being triggered to fire their run wires simultaneously through individual transistors. Doing this with as many coils as possible would put out a very considerable charge. It's actually quite efficient and this particular one can run for an incredibly long time from under 3v input.
This is a Bedini circuit that has been made by modifying a PC Fan. All of the circuit components were salvaged from PC power supply i got the fan from except for the neon bulb and the trimmer (which are not necessary). The original fan modification idea as far as I can tell was thought up by a guy who goes by "Imhotep". You basically open up the PC fan and remove the circuit board. It has 4 coils in series with a bifilar winding already wound, and one wire leading from each coil to a terminal, except that one of the coils has 2 of the wires on its terminal. All you do is remove the second wire and give it it's own terminal and boom your done, you have trigger and run windings.. all you need to do is wire the circuit.
all of the circuitry is housed on the back with electrical tape.
In this vid im running the fans output to a capacitor which is running the trifilar bedini.
I have a small amplifying transistor with a 1/2watt 1kohm resistor leading to a 500kohm trimmer. This allows me to tune the circuit for some good spike and easy self oscillation where I can reduce my draw to practically nothing and still output high frequency spikes for cap charging and stuff. Also, the arrangement allows me to self oscillate the circuit by connecting my input backwards which is interesting.
If you plan on building one of these take note first of the hairthin wire, so be careful.. you need steady hands and a good eye to get it right on the first try.
Also dont waste time using any super small fan models. Only the larger ones will be worth anything in terms of charging or putting out good RPMs.
I have found that these fans are simply too small to successfully charge a 12v battery in a reasonable amount of time, but are good for charging smaller ones.
Here im using an LED string as the indicator when the input is not great enough to light the neon
| This time we have 2 Bedini circuits operating in unison from the same input. I ran into a problem with this motor where it would not charge like it should. I found it to be a faulty diode on the collector.. (but it appeared to be working..) Always check your components! Now that there are 2 circuits, the output is going to be greater. getting the idea now? its pancakes man.. This motor is generating high voltage, enough to light a small fluorescent on its own.|| This circuit consists of two SSG circuits joined together. they are connected in parallel at the inputs and outputs. Two potentiometers can be used or only one to tune both circuits. I would prefer to use two though.|
|Now we have some bigger and stronger magnets with a more heavy duty rotor. There are no bearings but there is hardly any friction. 3 magnets and one coil. Regular radio shack magnet wire spools work great. In the video I'm showing how the Bedini SSG is basically an example of how conventional electric motors *should* be operating today.. By loading the run battery with its own counter-EMF, we can reduce the input draw dramatically.|| These are not neodymium magnets but super strong ceramics. |
|I wanted to see what would happen if the Bedini used run and trigger wires on separate cores. This would allow me to physically adjust each coil for more desirable speed, but what was the downside? Well this way the two coils cannot oscillate and it appears it makes the motor act more like a conventional motor, as the draw increases with load. It is however still quite efficient as an energizer because there is a greater speed potential, and the greater the speed, the lower the draw. The motor in the video is using a Darlington Transistor so its creating a higher voltage output, as well as accepting a lower voltage input.|
The SSG circuit is essentially the same here, except that I have two coils on the front side of the system. A run coil, and a triger coil, both of them aligned in a way where my run coil gives a good field push at the moment my trigger coil switches the transistor. Because both wires are no longer sharing the same core, there is no oscillation going on between them.
Heres the same circuit running from an AA. Now I feel kinda bad about taking it apart.
Now we have a shaft with two rotors. One is a drive rotor, the other is a generator rotor. Because there is such a great speed potential with a particular alignment of the separate run and trigger coils, we might as well try to generate some thing from that and capture some lost energy. So now we have the counter-EMF we can use to energize, as well as generator induction from the 2nd rotor. Not only that, i'm using an odd reed relay arrangement that pulses my generator coil WHILE its generating, thus creating a high voltage spike of its own, totally separate from the run circuit. This allows me to put a transient charge into the battery of my choosing roughly the same way the run circuit does. Interested yet? no? what the hell?
Here i have something called a selenium rectifier I got from an old piece of stereo equipment. They don't make em like the old stuff anymore.. Through this rectifier I can output nothing but high voltage spikes with minor current, preventing the rotor from slowing with the charge battery load.
Note the rotor and coil alignment.. I have found this to be very effective. Also note the small pickup coil orientation.. This is like a little secret I think.. It can be slightly loaded and it causes the rotor to increase in speed.
(thanks to Poppynumber1 for this image)
Trigger wire has around 800 turns while run wire has no more than 600
|This is a reed relay driven motor with one run coil utilizing both of its poles. all air cores with N52 neos. Its quite efficient as its raising the voltage above 13v on a 12v SLA using a small battery pack for the input.|
This time I have my trusty reed motor transformed into a very efficient energizer/generator. I have 2 generator coils pushing a small amount of real current and one run coil pushing high voltage spikes. The alignment of the coils and reed relay is the key, as well as the orientation of the extra magnets im using to adjust the sensitivity of the reed relay's contacts. Although I can charge two (lead acid) batteries back and forth with the rotor at high speeds, and both batteries will continue to gain over time, I have found that I can reduce the actual rotor speed and draw, yet still maintain a good output. This is a slow charge but will fully charge a receiving battery with very little lost from the run battery. Depending on the resistance and capacitance of the charge battery, there will be a certain level that the charging output cannot fall under in order for there to be a full charge. If this level is not met, it can result in unnecessary waste from the input battery as it continually tries to push energy into the charge battery without success. I have successfully put a full charge into a 12v using under 50mA, but realized after this video that just about anything under 25mA is not enough to get the job done all the way, though it may appear to have the capability early on.
I have a special arrangement of magnets near my reed switch that is controlling the pressure at which the switch connects, and also how the rotor spins. It's trial and error but is not too difficult to do.
hours later..i had to turn the draw up at some point in order to save time so the efficiency has gone down, but theres still a gain and i have enough evidence to at least prove the point.
another hour later...
and even several more hours later after the photos..
the charge ended up taking longer than i anticipated..i decided not to let it charge anymore at it's slow rate because it just wouldn't be practical, no matter how efficient. i rearranged the magnets for higher draw and output in order to speed up the process..
this is because i realized the capacitive difference between the two would mean a curvature or slope decline in the output as the charge battery's impedance changed and the run battery very slowly dropped. BUT because i manually tuned the charge at the beginning, it will turn out to still be more efficient once the battery has fully charged. i suppose the charge time would be a judgment call for whoever. If some type of regulatory circuit could be made then it could automatically start off at a low input, and as the receiving battery begins to become closer to a full charge, the input draw automatically increases proportionally. This could make an already efficient energizer even more efficient.